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The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style: Rare Sources

How to reference books

General guidance on referencing rare sources


If you incorporate information sourced from rare sources into your text, you must provide both an in-text citation and matching entry in your end List of References. These two components are referenced differently for different types of sources. Click on the relevant tab above to see examples.

If you cannot find information on how to reference your source, adapt relevant principles or take a look at the further support options.

Personal communication


In-text citation
 
Example
 
In a personal letter, Androulla Athanasiou explained that she is ‘completely against’ recent moves to erect a new football stadium in Coventry (Athanasiou 2006).

Components

  • Surname of the person you are citing.
  • Year the letter was sent.

List of References entry
 

Example

Athanasiou, A. (2006) Local Development Planning [letter] to Patterson, P. H. [30 May 2006]

 

Components

  • Author(s)' surnames and initials, in list format. 
  • Year the letter was sent, in brackets.
  • Title italics. (You may have to make a title up). 
  • Type of communication in square brackets, e.g. 'letter' or 'email'.
  • Name of the person that the communication was addressed to. 
  • Exact date the letter was sent in square brackets. (See the date format in the example above).

A music score


In-text citation
 

Examples

An example of this technique is provided in Grimalda (2005).
Several compositions use this technique, including Symphony no. 2  (Grimalda 2005).

Components

  • Surname of the composer(s) in a list format. If appropriate, use ‘et al.’.
  • Year the score was published in brackets.

List of References entry
 

Example

Grimalda, G. (2005) Symphony no. 2, A minor, op. 43. ed. by Poyner, K. Coventry: Coventry University Press

Components

  • Composer(s)' surnames and initials, in list format. 
  • Year the score was published in brackets.
  • Title of the score in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • The words 'ed. by' or 'arranged by', followed by the surname and initials of the editor or arranger. (If appropriate). 
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon.
  • Publisher.

An archive


In-text citation
 

Example

An art project proposal had been submitted (Rose 1980) but the outcome was still uncertain at the time.

Components

  • Surname(s) and initials of the author(s), in list format. 
  • Year. 

List of References entry
 

Example

Rose, J. (1980) Between C&D [National Endowment for the Arts Proposal] Fales Special Collection. New York: Bobst Library, New York University

Components

  • Surname(s) and initials of the author(s), in list format. 
  • Year in brackets.
  • Type of document, in square brackets. e.g. manuscript, letter. 
  • Name of archive collection.
  • Place where archive is collected, followed by a colon.
  • Institution where archive is collected. 

An unpublished text


In-text citation
 

Examples

According to Dawson (2006:15), a report should be divided into sections with clear headings and subheadings.
A report should be divided into sections with clear headings and subheadings (Dawson 2006:15).

Components

  • The surname(s) of the author(s) in list format. 
  • Year. 
  • Page numbers, if you are referring to a specific page or range of pages. 

List of References entry
 

Example

Dawson, M. (2006) A Guide to Writing Reports. Unpublished booklet. Coventry: Coventry University

Components

  • Surnames and initials of the author(s) in list format. 
  • Year in brackets. 
  • Title in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • The type of document, followed by a full stop. e.g. 'Unpublished booklet.' or 'Unpublished handbook.'
  • Place where document was produced.
  • Institution where document was produced. 
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