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The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style: Books

How to reference books

General guidance on referencing books


If you incorporate information sourced from books into your text, you must provide both an in-text citation and matching entry in your end List of References. These two components are referenced differently for different types of books. Click on the relevant tab above to see examples.

A book with one author


In-text citation

 

Examples

Gender affects public perceptions of scientists (Clarkson 2004: 45).
Clarkson (2004: 45) argues that gender affects public perceptions of scientists.

Components

  • Author's surname.
  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry

 

Example

Clarkson, G. (2004) Gender and Science. 4th edn. London: Palgrave

Components

  • Author's surname and initial(s).
  • Year the book was published in brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Edition of the book (if relevant), in the following format: 2nd edn.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.

 

A book with multiple authors


In-text citation

 

Example 1 (up to and including three authors)

Cox, Patel, and Pavliotis (2004) discuss Britain’s future adoption of the euro.
Britain's future adoption of the euro is a point of discussion (Cox, Patel, and Pavliotis 2004).

 

Components

  • For one, two, or three authors, give all surnames in list format.
  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

 

Example 2 (four or more authors)

Fletcher et al. (2006: 88) suggest that in this century global climate change has caused billions of dollars worth of damage.
In this century, global climate change has caused billions of dollars worth of damage (Fletcher et al. 2006: 88).

 

Components

  • For four or more authors, the surname of the first author followed by 'et al.'
  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry

 

Example

Fletcher, A., Jones, R., Morris, A.C., and Andreiotti, P. (2006) Global Climate Change. London: Routledge

Components

  • All the authors' surnames and initials, in list format. 
  • Year the book was published in brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Edition of the book (if relevant), in the following format: 2nd edn.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.

A book with a corporate author


In-text citation
 

Example

It is essential to provide a high level of patient care (BMA 2000).

Components

  • Name of the organisation. 

N.B. If the corporate author can be abbreviated, you may use the abbreviation or acronym in your in-text citation, but must give the full name in your list of references (see below).

  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry
 

Example

British Medical Association (BMA) (2000) Patient Care. London: Pearson Hardman

Components

  • Name of the organisation in full, followed by an acronym/abbreviation in brackets (if appropriate). 
  • Year the book was published in brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Edition of the book (if relevant), in the following format: 2nd edn.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.

A chapter in an edited collection


In-text citation
 

Examples

Recent developments in the field of pedagogical research have revolutionised teaching practice (Taylor 2006: 47).
Taylor (2006:47) claims that recent developments in the field of pedagogical research have revolutionised teaching practice.

Components

  • Surname of the author(s) of the chapter. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry

 

Example

Aggarwal, B. (2005) 'The Declining British Bird Population'. in A Guide to Contemporary Ornithology. ed. by Adams, G. London: Palgrave, 66-99

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the author(s) of the chapter, in list format. 
  • Year the book was published in brackets.
  • Title of the chapter in single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'in', followed by the title of the book in italics.
  • A full stop. 
  • The words 'ed. by', followed by the surname and initials of the editor(s) in list format. 
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.
  • Pages between which the article can be found.

A book with an editor


  • If you are referencing one of a number of essays by different authors, you will need to follow the referencing format for a chapter in an edited collection.

A volume of conference proceedings


Note:


In-text citation
 
Example
 
The papers presented at this conference were published in a collected volume (Tokay 2004).

Components

  • Surname of the editor(s) in a list format. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the volume was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the volume:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry
 

Example 1 (printed conference proceedings)

Tokay, D. (ed.) (2004) Translation as a Metaphor in Academic Writing. 'Conference on International Writing Centres'. held 3-5 April 2003 at Ankara University. Istanbul: Sabanci University Press

 

Components

  • All the editors' surnames and initials, in list format. 
  • The phrase 'ed.' for one editor, or 'eds.' for two editors in brackets, i.e. (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Year the volume was published in brackets.
  • Title of the volume in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the conference within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'held', followed by the full date of the conference (see date format above).
  • The word 'at', 'followed by the place or university where the conference was held.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.

Example 2 (electronic conference proceedings)

Tokay, D. (ed.) (2004) Translation as a Metaphor in Academic Writing. 'Conference on International Writing Centres'. held 3-5 April 2003 at Ankara University. [online] available from <http://www.internationalwritingcentres.org> [11 January 2005]

 

Components

  • All the editors' surnames and initials, in list format. 
  • The phrase 'ed.' for one editor, or 'eds.' for two editors in brackets, i.e. (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Year the volume was published in brackets.
  • Title of the volume in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the conference within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'held', followed by the full date of the conference (see date format above).
  • The word 'at', followed by the place or University where the conference was held.
  • The word 'online' in square brackets, i.e. [online]
  • The words 'available from', followed by the URL within chevrons, i.e. < >
  • Date you accessed the document in square brackets (see date format above).

An electronic book 


In-text citation
 

Example 1 (A book accessed electronically)

Potter (2005) provides a comprehensive introduction to human anatomy.
Human anatomy is a complex topic (Potter 2005: 34).

 

Components

  • Surname of the author(s) in a list format. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

Example 2 (An e-reader edition, e.g. a Kindle book)

Nathan Zuckerman is fascinated by great books (Roth 2011).
In Philip Roth's The Ghost Writer (2011), Nathan Zuckerman is a young writer fascinated by great books.

 

Components

  • Surname of the author(s). If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the book was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.
 

List of References entry
 

Example 1 (A book accessed electronically)

Potter, H. (2005) An Introduction to Human Anatomy [online] 4th edn. London: Adam Arnold. available from <http://anatomy/introduction/human/htm>  [27 March 2006]

 

Components

  • Surname and initials(s) of all the authors, in list format. 
  • Year the book was published in brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Edition of the book (if relevant), in the following format: 2nd edn.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher, followed by a full stop.
  • Write 'available from'.
  • The full URL within chevrons, i.e. < >.
  • Date you accessed the book in square brackets.

Example 2 (An e-reader edition, e.g. a Kindle book)

Roth, P. (2011) The Ghost Writer [Kindle edition]. Vintage Digital

 

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the author(s).
  • Year the book was published in brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Type of e-reader in square brackets, followed by a full stop.
  • Name of the publisher.

The Bible or other sacred texts


In-text citation
 

Example

David was a mighty warrior (2 Kings 10: 3).
As the chapter ‘The Star’ shows, the cosmic universe has a powerful symbolism for Arab people (The Star: 1).

 

Note: It is important that you make it clear which sacred text(s) you are referring to within your discussion.


Components

  • The title of the chapter, or equivalent.
  • The chapter number, or equivalent (if available).
  • A colon.
  • Verse number, or equivalent.
 

List of References entry
 

Example

Nelson, T. (ed.) (1994) Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Philadelphia: Pew Library

Components

  • Name of the editor. 
  • The abbreviation 'ed.' in brackets, i.e. (ed.)
  • Year of publication.
  • Title of the sacred text in italics.
  • Edition, if appropriate. e.g. 4th edn.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon.
  • Name of the publisher. 

A play


In-text citation
 

Example

Shakespeare broaches the question of women’s identity in his 1592 play, The Taming of the Shrew (Shakespeare 1982, II.1: 169–179).

Components

  • Surname of the playwright(s) in list format. 
  • Year the play was published in brackets (or edition/reprint year, for older plays).*
  • Act number in roman numerals.
  • Scene number.
  • Lines of the play, if available.

* If the play is older, and you did not read the original edition, then you may want to refer to the original year of publication in your own text. 


List of References entry
 

Example

Shakespeare, W. (1982) The Taming of the Shrew. ed. by Oliver, H.D. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the playwright(s), in list format. 
  • Year of the play (or edition/reprint year, for older plays).
  • Full title of the play (or volume of plays) in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • The words 'ed. by'.
  • Surname and initial(s) of the editor(s), in list format. (If available).
  • A full stop.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon.
  • Name of the publisher.

A reprint


In-text citation
 

Example

The Old Man and the Sea (Hemingway 1990), published in 1952, is a very thought-provoking novel.

Components

  • Surname of the author.
  • Year of the reprint in brackets.*

If you are referring to a particular point in the book:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

* You may want to refer to the original year of publication in your own text, as in the example above. 


List of References entry
 

Example

Hemingway, E. (1990) The Old Man and the Sea. New York: Limited Editions Club

Components

  • Author's surname and initials.
  • Year of the reprint in brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.

A dissertation or thesis


In-text citation
 

Examples

Jones (2000) argues that writing could enhance learning.
Violence against humanitarian aid workers is an issue that needs to be tackled urgently (Gifford 2008).

 

Components

  • Author's surname.
  • Dissertation/thesis year.

If you are referring to a particular point in the dissertation/thesis:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry
 

Example 1 (Thesis/dissertation accessed in print)

Jones, M. (2000) An Evaluation of Learning Through Writing. Unpublished PhD thesis. Coventry: Coventry University

 

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the author.
  • Year in brackets.
  • Title in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • The phrase 'Unpublished PhD thesis' or 'Unpublished dissertation', followed by a full stop.
  • Location of the university, followed by a colon.
  • Name of the university.

Example 2 (Thesis/dissertation accessed electronically)

Gifford, A. G. (2008) Humanitarian Directed Violence in Afghanistan: Neutrality and Humanitarian Space [online] MPhil dissertation. Massey University. available from <http://muir.massey.ac.nz/handle/10179/582>  [12 August 2009]

 

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the author.
  • Year in brackets.
  • Title in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'online' in square brackets, i.e. [online].
  • The words 'PhD thesis' or 'MA dissertation' (as appropriate), followed by a full stop.
  • Name of the university.
  • The words 'available from'.
  • Full URL (or thesis/dissertation directory address) within chevrons, i.e. < >.
  • Date of access in square brackets. See date format above. 

A dictionary or encyclopaedia


In-text citation
 

Examples

In the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, to paraphrase is defined as 'to express the meaning of something using different words'  (Oxford Dictionaries 2008).
Tax is usually defined as a mandatory contribution to the state budget (Downes and Goodman 1998).
To paraphrase means to rewrite something using your own words (Deuter, Bradbery and Turnbull 2016).

Components

  • Corporate author or the surname(s) of the editor(s).
  • Year.

List of References entry
 

Example 1 (Accessed in print)

Oxford Dictionaries (2008) Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 11th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Downes, J., and Goodman, J. E. (eds.) (1998) Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms. 5th edn. New York: Barron’s

Components

  • Name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), or name(s) of corporate author(s).
  • Year the dictionary was published in brackets.
  • Title of the dictionary in italics.
  • Edition of the dictionary (if relevant), in the following format: 2nd edn.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon. 
  • Name of the publisher.

Example 2 (Accessed electronically)

Deuter, M., Bradbery, J., and Turnbull, J. (2016) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. 9th edn. [online] Oxford: Oxford University Press. available from <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/> [18 February 2016]

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of author(s) or editor(s), or name of corporate author(s)
  • Year the dictionary was published in brackets.
  • Title of the dictionary in italics.
  • Edition of the dictionary (if relevant), in the following format: 2nd edn.
  • Volume number (if relevant).
  • The word 'online' in square brackets.
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon.
  • Publisher, followed by a full stop.
  • The words 'available from'.
  • Full URL within chevrons, i.e. < >.
  • Date of access within square brackets, i.e. [ ].
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