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The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style: Articles

How to reference articles

General guidance on referencing articles


If you incorporate information from articles into your text, you must provide both an in-text citation and matching entry in your end List of References. These two components are referenced differently for different types of articles. Click on the relevant tab above to see examples.

A journal article published in print


Note:

  • Most journal articles (even if accessed online) are also available in print, so it is acceptable to reference them as printed journal articles. For example, if you are using a PDF version you have downloaded, you can usually treat this as a printed journal article for referencing purposes, but check with your module tutor whether this is acceptable.
  • If it is clear from the data you have that the journal is available only electronically as part of a website or a database, then reference it as an electronic journal article.

In-text citation

 

Examples

Lungu (2008) discusses the common points between the spatial theories of Frederic Jameson and Henri Lefebvre.
There are some common points between the spatial theories of Frederic Jameson and Henri Lefebvre (Lungu 2008).

Components

  • Surname of the author(s) in a list format. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the journal was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the article:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

 


List of References entry

 

Example

Jones, A., Smith, C., Carolson, B.R., Hong, A., and Michaelson, V. (2012) ‘Online Marking Tools’. Journal of Education 2 (3), 56-99

Components

  • All the authors' surnames and initials, in list format. 
  • Year the journal was published in brackets.
  • Title of the article in single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the journal in italics.
  • Volume number.
  • Issue number in brackets (if there is one).
  • A comma.
  • Pages between which the article can be found.

A journal article published electronically


Note:

  • If it is clear from the data you have that the journal is available only electronically as part of a website or a database, then reference it as an electronic journal article.
  • Most journal articles, however, (even if accessed online) are also available in print, so it is acceptable to reference them as printed journal articles. For example, if you are using a PDF version you have downloaded, you can usually treat this as a printed journal article for referencing purposes, but check with your module tutor whether this is acceptable.

In-text citation

 

Examples

The majority of undergraduates interviewed reported positively on the use of online marking tools (Jones et al. 2012: 23).
Interviews conducted by Jones et al. (2012: 23) found that the majority of undergraduates have positive views of online marking tools.

Components

  • Surname of the author(s) in a list format. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the journal was published in brackets.

If you are referring to a particular point in the article:

  • A colon.
  • The page number(s) for the information to which you are referring.

List of References entry

 

Example

Lungu, A. (2008) ‘Marx, Postmodernism and Spatial Configurations in Jameson and Lefebvre’. CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture [online] 10 (1), 55-88. available from <http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1481-4374.1327> [10 January 2016]

Components

  • All the authors' surnames and initials, in list format.
  • Year the journal was published in brackets.
  • Title of the article in single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the journal in italics.
  • The word 'online' in square brackets.
  • Volume number.
  • Issue number (if there is one) in brackets, followed by a comma.
  • Pages between which the article can be found, followed by a full stop.
  • The words 'available from'. 
  • Full URL, subject directory, or database address, within chevrons, i.e. < >
  • The date you accessed the article in square brackets. (See date format in the example above).

A newspaper article published in print


In-text citation

Examples

Anderson (2002) argues that biology is Britain's best discipline.
Biology is allegedly Britain's best discipline (Anderson 2002).

Components

  • Surname of the author(s) of the article. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year the newspaper was published.

If you are referring to a specific point in the article:

  • A colon.
  • Page number(s). 

List of References entry

Example

Anderson, E. (2002) ‘Biology is Britain’s Best Discipline’. The Independent 20 July, 4-5

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the author(s).
  • Year.
  • Title of the article within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the newspaper in italics.
  • Exact date of the article. (See date format above). 
  • Page numbers. 

A newspaper article published electronically


In-text citation

Examples

An article published in The Economist (2016) argues that scientists only make public the results of successful research.
Mexican drug traffickers have been found to continue trade in prison (Lacey 2009).

Components

  • Surname of the author of the article. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.

N.B. If no individual authors are provided, use the name of the newspaper/website instead.

  • Year the newspaper was published.

If you are referring to a specific point in the article:

  • A colon.
  • Page number(s). 

List of References entry

Examples

Lacey, M. (2009) 'Mexico’s Drug Traffickers Continue Trade in Prison'. The New York Times [online] 11 August. available from <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/world/americas/11prisons.html?_r=1&hp> [11 August 2009]
The Economist (2016) 'Why bad science persists: Incentive Malus'. The Economist [online] 24 September. available from<http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21707513-poor-scientific-methods-may-be-hereditary-incentive-malus> [11 October 2016]

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the author(s).
  • Year.
  • Title of the article within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the newspaper in italics.
  • The word 'online' in square brackets. 
  • The exact date of the article. (See date format above). 
  • The words 'available from'.
  • Full URL within chevrons, i.e. < >
  • Date you accessed the article in square brackets.

A conference paper published in print


In-text citation

Examples

Shah (1992:23) discusses the key issues affecting the neuro-rehabilitation services in the Midlands.
A paper presented at this conference discussed the neuro-rehabilitation services in the Midlands (Shah 1992).

Components

  • Surname of the author(s). If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year of publication.

If you are referring to a specific point in the article: 

  • A colon.
  • Page number(s). 

List of References entry

Example

Lacey, M. Shah, A. (1992) ‘Neuro-rehabilitation Services in the Midlands’. in Wood, P. (ed.) Proceedings of the Coventry Conference on Local Psychology Provision, ‘Practical Psychology: How to Improve’. held 7-9 March 1990 at Coventry University. London: Prentice Hall, 8-20

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of author(s).
  • Year in brackets.
  • Title of the paper within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'in'. 
  • Surname and initial(s) of the editor(s) of the conference proceedings.
  • The abbreviation 'ed.' (for a single editor) or 'eds.' (for multiple editors) in brackets.
  • Title of the conference proceedings in italics followed by a comma
  • Title of the conference within single quotation marks followed by a full stop. 
  • The word 'held', followed by the full date of the conference. (See date format above).
  • The word 'at', followed by the place (university/town/city) where the conference was held. 
  • Place of publication followed by a colon.
  • Publisher, followed by a comma.
  • Page numbers of the paper.

A conference paper published electronically


In-text citation

Examples

Seetal (2013) states that South African soil has high evaporation rate.
South African soil has high evaporation rate (Seetal 2013).

Components

  • Surname of author(s). If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year of publication.

If you are referring to a specific point in the article: 

  • A colon.
  • Page number(s). 

List of References entry

Example

Seetal, A. (2013) 'A Snapshot: Issues and Perspectives on Water and Agriculture in South Africa' in International Conference on the Political Economy of Agricultural Policy in Africa. held 18-20 March at Roodevallei, Pretoria. [online] available from <http://www.future-agricultures.org/pp-conference-papers/political-economic-aspects-of-water-policies/1699-a-snapshot-issues-and-perspectives-on-water-agriculture-in-south-africa/file> [19 January 2016]

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of author(s).
  • Year in brackets.
  • Title of the paper within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'in'. 
  • Surname and initial(s) of the editor(s) of the conference proceedings.

If available:

  • The abbreviation 'ed.' (for a single editor) or 'eds.' (for multiple editors) in brackets.

If no editors are available, proceed to the next step:

  • The title of the conference proceedings in italics, followed by a comma.
  • The word 'held', followed by the full date of the conference. (See date format above).
  • The word 'at', followed by the place (university/town/city) where the conference was held. 
  • The word 'online' in square brackets.
  • The words 'available from'.
  • Full URL within chevrons, i.e. < >
  • Date you accessed the document in square brackets.

A technical paper


In-text citation

Example

This paper discusses the benefits and costs of airbags (SAE 2004).

Components

  • Surname of the author(s), or corporate author. If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year of publication.

List of References entry

Example

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) (2004) ‘Airbag benefits, airbag costs’. Paper no. 2004-01-0840. SAE 2004 World Congress Exhibition, 3 August – 3 November 2004, Detroit. Smithson, J. S. Penn. Society of Automotive Engineers

Components

  • Surname of the author(s) or corporate author.
  • Year of publication.
  • Name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), or corporate author.
  • Year in brackets.
  • The title of the paper within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop.
  • The words ‘Paper no.’
  • Full paper number, followed by a full stop.
  • Conference title in italics, followed by a comma.
  • Date(s) of the conference, followed by a comma. 
  • Location followed by a full stop.
  • Surname and initials of the conference organiser.
  • Organising body.
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