Skip to main content

The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style: Spoken Sources

How to reference spoken sources

General guidance on referencing spoken sources


A spoken source is any source that was not originally written down. This may be a video, sound recording, conversation, interview, etc. Remember that with audio sources your reader may need to know the format, so indicate whether the source is a CD, DVD, VHS video, 35mm film, etc.

If you incorporate information from spoken sources into your text, you must provide both an in-text citation and matching entry in your end List of References. These two components are referenced differently for different types of spoken sources. Click on the relevant tab above to see examples.

An interview already available in the public domain

Note: 

  • Research conventions state that interviews that you conducted are regarded as research data (which you may attach to your academic paper in the form of an Appendix).
  • These do not need to be referenced.

In-text citation

Example

In this interview, Patel (2006) discusses his political views in detail.

Components

  • Surname of the interviewee(s).
  • Year of the interview.

List of References entry

 

Example 1 (Interviews available in print)

Patel, S. (2006) ‘Reactions to Political Moves’ [interview by A. Jameson] in Johns, D. R. (2006) Table Talk: Interviews with Local Individuals. London: Collins, 23-45

 

Components

  • Name and initial(s) of the interviewee.
  • Date of the interview in brackets. 
  • Title of the interview within single quotation marks. (This could be the title of the article or article section or the title of the broadcast).
  • The words 'interview by', followed by the name of the interviewer in square brackets. 
  • The word 'in'.
  • Full reference as normal (see relevant example) for the source in which the interview has been published, broadcast or recorded.

If available:

  • The page number(s) of the interview, preceded by a comma.

 

Example 2 (Interviews accessed electronically)

Patel, S. (2006) 'Reactions to Political Moves' [interview by A. Jameson] [online] available from <http/youtube.com/watch-1453> [12 February 2016]

 

Components

  • Name and initial(s) of the interviewee.
  • Date of the interview in brackets. 
  • Title of the interview within single quotation marks (this could be the title of the article or article section or the title of the broadcast).
  • The word 'online' in square brackets.
  • The words 'available from'.
  • Full URL within chevrons, i.e. < >.
  • Date of access in square brackets. (See date format in example above).

A conference presentation attended live

Note: 


In-text citation

Examples

The improvement of neuro-rehabilitation services in the Midlands was a key point in the presentation (Shah 1990).
A key point in Shah's (1990) presentation was the improvement of neuro-rehabilitation services in the Midlands.

Components

  • Name of the presenter(s). If appropriate, use 'et al.'.
  • Year.

List of References entry

 

Example

Shah, A. (1990) ‘Neuro-rehabilitation Services in the Midlands’. Conference on Practical Psychology: How to Improve. held 7-9 March 1990 at Coventry University

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the presenter.
  • Year of the presentation in brackets.
  • Title of the presentation between single inverted commas.
  • Title of the conference in italics, followed by a full stop.
  • The word 'held', followed by the date(s) of the conference. (See date format above.)
  • The word 'at', followed by the place where the conference took place.

A lecture

Note: 

  • The format of your entry in the List of References may be one of three types: a live lecture (lecture notes), a lecture podcast (available online, e.g. through Moodle or YouTube), or a recorded lecture (e.g. on DVD or CD).

In-text citation

Examples

According to a lecture delivered as part of module 102ENG, Engineering has changed fundamentally since 1945 (Hatton 2015).
In a lecture delivered as part of the module 102ENG, Hatton (2015) stated that Engineering has changed fundamentally since 1945.

Components

In your writing, indicate that you are referring to a lecture, then add:

  • Name of the presenter(s) (as author).
  • Year the lecture was delivered.

List of References entry

 

Example 1 (A live lecture, e.g. from your notes)

Hatton, K. L. (2015) Engineering Since 1945 [lecture] module 102ENG, 2 May 2015. Coventry: Coventry University

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the presenter.
  • Year of the presentation in brackets.
  • Title of the lecture in italics (you may need to make up an appropriate title).
  • The word ‘lecture’ in square brackets.
  • Title of module, seminar or special occasion, followed by a comma.
  • Exact date with a full stop. (See date format in the example above).
  • Place, followed by a colon.
  • Institution where the lecture was delivered.

Example 2 (A lecture podcast, i.e. a lecture available online)

Hatton, K. L. (2015) Engineering Since 1945 [lecture podcast] module 102ENG, 2 May 2015. available from Moodle2 [12 June 2006]

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the presenter.
  • Year of the presentation in brackets.
  • Title of the lecture in italics (you may need to make up an appropriate title).
  • Format in square brackets, e.g. 'lecture CD'.
  • Title of module, seminar or special occasion, followed by a comma.
  • Exact date with a full stop. (See date format in example above).
  • The words 'available from'.
  • URL or the virtual learning platform.
  • Date of access in square brackets. (See date format in example above).

Example 3 (A lecture available as a recording)

Hatton, K. L. (2015) Engineering Since 1945 [lecture CD] module 102ENG, 2 May 2015. Coventry: Coventry University

Components

  • Surname and initial(s) of the presenter.
  • Tear of the presentation in brackets.
  • Title of the lecture in italics (you may need to make up an appropriate title).
  • Format in square brackets, e.g. 'lecture CD'.
  • Title of module, seminar or special occasion, followed by a comma.
  • Exact date with a full stop. 
  • Place, followed by a colon.
  • Institution where the lecture was delivered.

The minutes of a meeting


In-text citation
 

Example

A point of action in the minutes is checking all departmental computers for viruses (Council Tax Department 2012).

Components

  • Organisation, department or group that organised the meeting.
  • Year of the meeting.

If the passage originates in a paginated document:

  •  Page number(s) preceded by a colon.

List of References entry
 

Example

Council Tax Department (2012) Meeting Minutes. Coventry: Coventry City Council

Components

  • Name of the organisation, department or group that organised the meeting.
  • Year of the meeting in brackets.
  • Type of document, i.e. 'Meeting Minutes', in italics.
  • Place, followed by a colon.
  • Institution.

An electronic audio source


Take a look at the Online & Electronic Sources section for examples of the following formats:

Loading

Download the Guide

key elements        ||          how to use sources        ||          cannot find source       ||        FAQs       ||          further support       ||      background       ||      contact us

 

@2017 Centre for Academic Writing (CAW) and Coventry University.

Creative Commons Licence
The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in the Harvard Style by The Centre for Academic Writing is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.