Skip to main content

The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style: Key elements

Key elements explained

CU Guide to referencing in Harvard Style: key elements


Explicit indication of the contribution of other authors to shaping one's writing is one of the characteristics of academic writing in Britain and in many other countries. Explicit referencing of sources distinguishes academic writing from other types of writing, including newspapers, fiction, and other types of professional writing. All sources of information, including ideas, images, or numerical data must be documented using an established referencing system.

The CU Guide to referencing in Harvard Style requires acknowledgement of sources in two ways:

  • An in-text citation every time you use information from a source in the body of your document
  • A single entry for each source in a List of References at the end of your document.

Your in-text citations and List of References must correspond. Take a look at the relationship between the two elements.

In-text citations


The key principle is to acknowledge a source in the main body of your writing by providing the author’s surname and the year of publication.

  • Add the page number/s (if available) whenever you do not refer to the source as a whole, but rather to information that can be retrieved on a single page or a specific number of pages.

Note: ​If you need to acknowledge a source that you  accessed indirectly (e.g. a text another author has quoted), take a look at how to reference secondary sources.


In-text citation

 

Note:

  • You have two options to apply this principle in your writing: integral (i.e. integrated) or non-integral (i.e. not integrated) in-text citations.
  •  You may vary the practice or choose the option that best fits your purpose.

Example 1 (integral in-text citations)

Shah (2005: 66-8) maintains that in recent years Coventry has become Britain’s most important industrial city.
According to Shah (2005: 66-8), in recent years Coventry has become Britain's most important industrial city.

 

Components

If you mention the author’s name in your own writing:

  • Year in brackets.
  • Page number(s), if you refer to information that can be retrieved from a specific page or page range.

Example 2 (non-integral in-text citations)

 
Wavelets are an effective means of disease detection (Qureshi 2006: 95).

 

Components

If you do not mention the author’s name in your own writing, in brackets give:

  • Surname of author(s).
  • Year.
  • Page number(s) preceded by a colon, if you refer to information that can be retrieved from a specific page or page range.

 

 

List of References


Enter the source in the List of References at the end of your document by providing all the publication or internet details in the appropriate format (see appropriate guidance for your source).

  • The List of References is organised alphabetically according to the surname of the author or corporate author.
  • Every line after the first should be indented so that the author stands out. If you are using Microsoft Word, on the 'Paragraph' menu, go to 'Indentation' and select 'Special'->'Hanging'.
  • There is a line of space between entries and the text is double-spaced.
  • The List of References should be placed on a separate page at the end of your document, prior to Appendices.

Note: ​If you need to provide an entry for a source that you accessed indirectly (e.g. a text another author has quoted), take a look at how to reference secondary sources.


List of References entry

 

The format of your List of References entry depends on the type of source you have used.

Find an example of your source type using the green tabs at the top of this page.

The relationship between in-text citations and the List of References


For each in-text citation, provide an appropriate entry in the List of References:

  • Only sources that have at least one in-text citation should be included in the List of References.
  • A source should only appear once in the List of References even if there are many in-text citations for that source in your paper.

Example

Example of the two main elements in a paper: in-text citations and List of References

Fig. 1 In-text citations and a List of References in a sample paper (Deane 2006)

Loading

Download the Guide

Footer1

key elements        ||          how to use sources        ||          cannot find source       ||        FAQs       ||          further support       ||      background       ||      contact us

 

@2017 Centre for Academic Writing (CAW) and Coventry University.

Creative Commons Licence
The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in the Harvard Style by The Centre for Academic Writing is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.