A spoken source is any source that was not originally written down. This may be a video, sound recording, conversation, interview, etc. Remember that with audio sources your reader may need to know the format, so indicate whether the source is a CD, DVD, VHS video, 35mm film, etc.
If you incorporate information from spoken sources into your text, you must provide both an in-text citation and matching entry in your end List of References. These two components are referenced differently for different types of spoken sources. Click on the relevant tab above to see examples.
Note: Research conventions state that interviews that you conducted yourself are regarded as research data (which you may attach to your academic paper in the form of an Appendix) and therefore do not need to be referenced.
In your writing, indicate that you are referring to a lecture, then add:
If the passage originates in a paginated document:
Take a look at the Online & Electronic Sources section for examples of the following formats:
Overview of key elements:
Techniques to integrate sources
How to reference secondary sources (sources within sources)
key elements || how to use sources || cannot find source || FAQs || further support || background || contact us
@2017 Centre for Academic Writing (CAW) and Coventry University.
The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in the Harvard Style by The Centre for Academic Writing is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.